Chronic migraine.

Keywords: Chronic migraine, headache, headache frequency, migraine triggers, hypersensitivity, and pain.

Chronic migraine is a debilitating condition that evolves from several headaches over a long period of time. The International Headache Society defines chronic migraine as more than fifteen headache days per month over a three month period of which more than eight are migraines. Symptoms of chronic migraine may include severe pounding or throbbing pain, nausea or vomiting, blurred vision, dizziness, and fatigue. At AZTMJ, Dr. Stan Farrell focuses on the treatment of all types of headaches including migraine. Dr. Stan Farrell is Board Certified and a member of the American Headache Society and a Diplomate with the American Board of Orofacial Pain, making him one of the best choices for your migraine headache treatment. If you or someone you know is experiencing the signs and symptoms of headache and or migraines, please schedule an appointment for a consultation with Dr. Farrell at 480-945-3629 or visit us online at

Schwedt TJ. Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA.

Abstract: Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed.